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2020 by Niki Raapana with Nordica Friedrich.

American's History of the United States

by Niki Raapana. Updated March 21, 2005

".. Some historians have depicted the United States as a society centered around Lockean values, those of rights and liberty 8. Actually, it is now widely agreed that the United States had, from its inception, both a strong communitarian and individualistic strand, a synthesis of republican virtues and liberal values 9." Amitai Etzioni in The Emerging Global Normative Synthesis (pdf file) published in The Journal of Political Philosophy Volume 12, Number 2, 2004 pp. 214-244.(bold added) {Editor's note: Thesis v. Antithesis = Synthesis, aka The Hegelian dialectic}

We've been trying to determine how the original U.S. system changed into a communitarian government since 1999. We went back and re-read our Founder's documents. We read letters and books and journals published in the late 18th century. It was all fairly simple until we hit the late 19th century, and many references were to documents and organizations associated with the conspiracy theory. We avoided these materials for many years. As our anticommunitarian thesis began to take shape, our focus naturally shifted to examining the areas we had previously never heard about, or had flat refused to consider. This is part of that attempt.

Random Thoughts - 1905 Then and Now by Kevin Tuma at

Sinking Globalization by Niall Ferguson published in Foreign Affairs, March/April 2005. This is a great synopsis of U.S. economic history and its relation to wars. Very important perspective on the current political climate at the same time it's a nifty little history lesson. Forwarded from Peter Myers, whose e-list remains one of the best sources of political-economic materials we've found online.

Bari Revisited; Part II by Curtis B. Maynard, B.A.A.S., Texas A&M University Kingsville, August 5, 2005, is a thesis about what happened to the U.S. fleet at Bari during WWII.

We began with the basics

The Trials and Tribulations of Thomas Jefferson by Gordon S. Wood. Woods explains how communitarianism was inserted into US history in 1978.

The American Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776.

The Constitution of the United States 1789.

Government's 50 Greatest Endeavors; A Study Guide for History Instructors

The unfree world.

The most controversial- difficult areas of historical study

"In 1517, 25 years after Columbus first landed in the Bahamas, the English working class was in the midst of a huge revolt, organized through the guilds. King Henry VIII had brought to England Lombard bankers from Italy and merchants from France to undercut wages, lengthen hours, and break the guilds. This alliance between international finance, national capital and military aristocracy was in the process of merging into the imperialist nation-state." WHY I HATE THANKSGIVING (2005) by Mitchel Cohen.

The Opportunity of the United States By Andrew Carnegie (New York: Anti-Imperialist League of New York, 1902).

[ Death ]Religious
Religious freedom is a 1st Amendment guarantee, yet our entire constitutional system is based in a belief in a God or in a higher universal authority that controls nature. Most of our Founders were very religious men whose ideas of liberty were permeated with their respective personal church-taught doctrines. The fact that the Kings under a Monarchial government were "understood" to have been appointed by God himself meant that the colonial revolution was not only against the King and Parliment, but also against God's rule. The imperialists of the time were certain they were God's representaives on earth. Imperial governments always assume they have a God-ordained right to expand their own particular form of rulership over the surrounding countryside. All world history is of the expansionist policies of Empires. Much of the enlightenment writing was focused on the authority of the established state church (which exercised life and death power), and many American colonials wanted to maintain state churches (which some continued to maintain even after the American revolution).

We were shocked and suprised by how little we understood about what "free enterprise" meant to Washington, Jefferson, Hamilton, Adams, Monroe, Jackson, and Taft. When we finally began reading Friedrich List we openly grieved and cheered, because he told us about an America that almost was. By the time we learned more about McKinley, why he was assasinated and why he was pushed to run for president, we openly shed tears. The real history of the U.S. is the saddest story we ever read. The real economic history of the world is also mostly discounted as part of the conspiracy theory.

In 1953 Robert Nisbet offered a nice overview of what happened to the legal foundations for economic freedom, individual liberty and responsibility under the progressive presidencies of Teddy Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt in his The Quest for Community.

Ideology is a fairly new term invented by the French in the late 18th century.

What we can be "sure" of in U.S. history

"Don't believe a word I say."
Knights Templar researcher Henry Lincoln to an audience gathered at the Sauniere Society Symposium, in Gullane, Scotland.

History is a set of lies agreed upon. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)

Our Founders left behind the most wonderful documents that prove they thought long, debated hard, and ultimately voted on the foundations for our republican government. There was no "consensus" in secret elitist meetings, no cunning or sorcery, and there was no convoluted, distorted argument about the proletariat against the bourgeois. Our Founders were open, honest, eloquent and bold, and everything we've read written by them has inspired us to continue in our work to preserve what they so courageously set forth. We really had a great time reading Washington's and Monroe's speeches, Hamilton's arguments for a National Bank, and Paine's letters to Jefferson during the French Revolution, and so it was with a heavy heart that we finally began our study of the true economic history of the U.S.

After List, in order to understand American history, the serious student must also begin their study of Hegel (1812), Marx & Engels (1847), and the communist writings of Lenin (1929), Trotsky (1917) and Stalin (1945). We also read USSR official directives, because communist history is the history of the demise of the greatest experiment in individual freedom from servitude in the history of the modern world. After two years reading our logical and forthright Founders, it was a rude awakening to look at the core of the dialectical arguments against freedom. We found that they were inconsistant, rude, lacking in scientific basis, and mostly boring drivel (bordering on insanity), and yet these are the arguments that ultimately won against our Founder's brilliance and perseverance.

Next we identified the three taboo topics in U.S. history: Communism, Zionism and Freemasonry

A. Communism

From Etzioni's blog on March 3, 2005 under "Community Events": "1985-2005" TWENTY YEARS THAT CHANGED THE WORLD Turin, 4-6 March 2005. While Jack Reed isn't on the speaker's list, we think he'd be proud to see so many communists included in the dialogues, and to see the conference taking poetic license with his "Ten Days That Shook The World." (American John Reed covered the Bolshevik's successful communist takeover of the Russian Revolution.)

Allen Dulles, first director of the CIA -1953-1961. publishes Studies in Intelligence.

11.3 The Communist Threat Abroad by study guides.

B. Zionism

Zionism at Wikipedia

A serious problem for most people is that the plan for a global government was laid out in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Its scenarios bear striking similarities to our current global situation. An early 20th century copy is in the London Museum, and it supposedly exposed a secret Zionist plot for controlling the world. The Protocols were published by Henry Ford in the 1920's and were used by Hitler in 1933 to fuel his antisemitic laws. After WWII the book was discounted as a fraud, and today even mentioning the book is taboo. Yet, regardless of who the plotters actually were, it is undeniable that before our very eyes the exact same plot unfolds. The book serves to discount the real and verifiable plan the same way the alien theory does, which for us makes it a part of the dialectic. It also serves to deflect historians from penetrating the whole Zionist agenda as a purely political agenda. And, it's popularity in the Arab countries is another topic altogether.

For a good example of American revisionism that dares to consider the most taboo topics, see Jewish Persecution by Jackie Patru, Hope of the Wicked by Ted Flynn, or American Babylon by Peter Goodgame.

ONE WORLD or NONE A Report to the Public on the Full Meaning of the Atomic Bomb-1946, Edited by Dexter Masters and Katharine Way, posted by Peter Myers.


C. Freemasonry

President McKinley was a prominent Freemason: "His Masonic record is almost equally impressive. He never forgot Masonry and, holding the full range of York Rite Degrees, he delivered the address at the centennial of Washington's death. On December 14, 1899, at Mount Vernon, Bro. McKinley addressed the Masonic observance of the centennial saying: "The Fraternity justly claims the immortal patriot as one of its members; and the whole human family acknowledges him as one of the greatest benefactors." He regularly visited Lodges in his national travels and in Washington, D.C. A delegation from Columbia Lodge No. 2397 visited him in the White House and gave him a certificate of membership in that Lodge in London, England. He attended a reception in his honor at California Commandery No. 1 in San Francisco, on May 22, 1901./During an Imperial Council meeting in Washington, he received the Shriners at the White House, and, also at the White House, tendered a reception for the Scottish Rite's Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction, on October 23, 1899. Those activities typified his regular promotion of and participation in our honorable institution./ Anarchist Leon Czolgosz killed the man, but he could not kill his exemplary record of humanitarian achievements and public service. Bro. McKinley's remains were accompanied from the White House to the Capitol by five Commanderies of Knights Templar. He lay in state two days, and on September 19, 1901, uniformed Knights Templar, some two thousand strong, formed one full division of the funeral escort."

Who are the Masons? by Grand Lodge of Virginia explains:
"No one knows just how old Freemasonry is because the actual origins have been lost in time. Most scholars believe Masonry arose from the guilds of stonemasons who built the majestic castles and cathedrals of the middle ages. In 1717, Masonry created a formal organization when four Lodges in London joined in forming England's first Grand Lodge. By 1731, when Benjamin Franklin joined the Fraternity, there were already several Lodges in the Colonies, and in Canada the first Lodge was established in 1738."

Many American Founders and statesmen have been Freemasons: Famous Freemasons posted by the OLD EPSOMIAN LODGE 3561, London, England.

It's historically verifiable that the United States was assisted in its successful revolution against the Imperial British Monarchy by freemasons. Why is the role of secret freemasonry in the formation of the U.S. ignored or worse, ridiculed and dismissed as a ridiculous conspiracy theory? This makes no sense. Shouldn't we study and perhaps honor their contributions openly? Why have their founding contributions been written out of modern day texts?

Lafayette has a biography page at the Grand Lodge of British Columbia where they claim:
"French aristocrat Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert du Motier, marquis de Lafayette, fought with American colonists against the British and, as a leader of the liberal aristocrats and outspoken advocate of religious toleration, was a powerful influence in the first few years of the French Revolution. There is no question that Lafayette was a freemason, for the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania received him with distinguished honours during his last visit to the USA, and the Grand Lodge of Tennessee made him an honorary member when Andrew Jackson, seventh USA president (1829-1836), introduced him to that Grand Lodge in 1825. Where he was made a freemason though, remains an unanswered question."

The BC Grand Lodge has more on Freemasons in the French Revolution.

Little-Known U.S. Document Signed by President Adams Proclaims America's Government Is Secular by Jim Walker at

"It was not my intention to doubt that, the Doctrines of the Illuminati, and principles of Jacobinism had not spread in the United States. On the contrary, no one is more truly satisfied of this fact than I am... The idea that I meant to convey, was, that I did not believe that the Lodges of Free Masons in this Country had, as Societies, endeavoured to propagate the diabolical tenets of the first, or pernicious principles of the latter (if they are susceptible of seperation). That Individuals of them may have done it, or that the founder, or instrument employed to found, the Democratic Societies in the United States, may have had these objects; and actually had a seperation of the People from their Government in view, is too evident to be questioned." The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799. John C. Fitzpatrick, Editor. Mount Vernon, October 24, 1798.

Freemasonry in the Eighteenth-Century Prepared by: Brandy Farese at

A Concise History of Freemasonry by the Old Epsomian Lodge that omits any reference to Free and Accepted Masons in their history, even thought they do refer to famous American masons. A google search for the term "Free and Accepted" takes us to an American site whose members claim:

"There have been 14 US Presidents who were Master Masons prior to and during their terms in office."

George Washington (1789-1797)... William McKinley (1897-1901)
James Monroe (1817-1825) ... Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)
Andrew Jackson 1829-1837) ... William H. Taft (1909-1913)
James K. Polk (1845-1849) ... Warren G. Harding (1921-1923)
James Buchanan (1857-1861)... Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945)
Andrew Johnson (1865-1869)... Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)
James A. Garfield (1881)... Gerald R. Ford (1974-1977)

The George Washington Masonic National Memorial

Freemasonry: "Masonry", "The Brotherhood", "The Lodge", "The Craft" by J. Dominguez, M.D. This site lists Famous Masons as:

- USA:
- 14 Presidents: Clinton, Ford, Truman, both Roosevelt, Jackson, Monroe, Washington... Not Masons: Bush, Reagan, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Nixon, Carter, Lincoln... (Johnson: Apprentice)
- 18 Vice-Presidents: Including Gore...
- 18 Senators: Dole, Byrd, Bentsen, Nunn, Helms, Goldwater, Kemp, Thurmond... Wallace...
- 76 members of the House of Representatives: Gingrich, Wright, Lott, Pepper, W. Ford, Rangel...
- 35 U.S. Supreme Court Justices: Out of the 9 members, in 1941: 5 to 4; in 1949: 8 to 1; in 1957: 6 to 3; in 1971: 5 to 4: Warren, Marshall...
- Generals Colin Powell, MacArthur, Doolittle.
- Declaration of Independence: 9 of the 56 signers. Franklin (helped to initiate Voltaire).

- England: Many Kings, Queens, and Prime Ministers, including Churchill, Duke of Windsor, of Kent, Prince Philip...
- Canada: 6 Prime Ministers: Diefenbaker...
- Australia: 10 Prime Ministers: Hawke...
- South Africa: Pik Botha...
- Other International Leaders: King Hussein of Egypt, Rabin of Israel, Arafat, Garibaldi, Bolivar, Marti, Villas, Zapata...

Religious Leaders:
Jesse Jackson, Oral Roberts, Robert Schuller, Louis Farrahkan, Vincent Peale, Geoffrey Fisher (Archbishop of Canterbury)... many Mormons: Smith, Young... many Rosicrucians...
- The Occult and Satanism: Aliester Crowley (magic, to destroy Christianity), Gardner (Wiccan, white witchcraft), Wescott (order of golden dawn), Helena Blavatsky (theosophy), Pike (satanist)...
Business and Economic Leaders: The Rothschilds and the Rockefellers, H. Ford, W. Chrysler, A. Citroen, C. Hilton, J.C.Penny, C. Woodward, D. Thomas (Wendy's), Sanders (Kentucky Fried Chicken), M. Sachs (5th Ave.)...
Movie Actors and Directors: Bob Hope, John Wayne, Louis Armstrong, Clark Gable, Tyrone Power, Danny Thomas, Al Jonson, Gene Autre, Casanova, Cecil B. DeMille, Walt Disney, Mayer (of Metro-Goldwin-Mayer), the 7 Ringling Brothers of the Circus, Houdini, Red Skelton, Collodi (Pinocchio), Lincoln (Tarzan), Roy Rogers, Nat King Cole, Oliver Hardy, Roy Clark, Jimmy Rodgers...
Musicians: Mozart, Beethoven, Handel, Haydn, Sibelius, Duke Ellington, Frank Lystz, Puccini...
Writers: Shakespeare, Voltaire, Kipling, Tolstoy, Pushkin, Doyle (Sherlock Holmes)...
Astronauts: John Gleen, Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, Cooper, Irwin... Lindbergh the aviator...
Founders: Booth (Salvation Army), Beard (Boy Scouts), Dunant (Red Cross), Sax (saxophone)...
Architects: Bartholdy (Statue of Liberty), Eifell (Paris Tower), Hoban (White House), Borglum (Mt. Rushmore), Smithson (Smithsonian Institute).
Medicine: Fleming (penicillin), Jenner (Small Pox), Mayo (Clinic in the USA)...
Sports: Dempsey, Sugar R. Robinson, Auerbach, Michael Jordan, Cy Yong, Willie Mays, Palmer.
"World Media": Newspapers, Radio, TV... an "enormous influence", Paul A. Fisher, of the millitary intelligence, lists in "Behind the Lodge Door" several founders, publishers, editors... Many members of the National Press Club of America, half of French periodicals...

Freemasonry & bees by the Grand Logde of British Columbia. "Napoleon was initiated, passed and raised into an Army Philadelphe Lodge of the Ecossais Primitive Rite of Narbonne between 1795 and 1798.4. Considering Napoleon's interest in things Egyptian, his reason for adoption of the bee symbol can only be a subject of supposition. When Napoleon had embroidered bees sewn on his robes it was not as a claim of legitimacy directed at any of his contemporaries; certainly not the aristocracy whose roots were not Merovingian nor sympathies masonic. Certainly not the freemason revolutionaries of the USA who were then embracing republicanism."

The Riddle of the Sibly Chart for American Independence: Masonic Astrology and the Fixed Square of the Zodiac by Ed Kohout.

Walking Like an Egyptian; the American Destinies of a Revolutionary French Secret Society by Mark A. Lause.

FAMOUS FREEMASONS. A Talk to our less senior Brethren by V.W. Bro. Anthony FIELD, Past Grand Director of Ceremonies of the United Grand Lodge of England, Past Grand Director of Ceremonies in the Supreme Grand Chapter of Royal Arch, Visiting Grand Officers of the Metropolital Grand Lodge of London. Lecture first given to the Menorah Lodge No 7195 (now amalgamated with the Joseph Lister Lodge No. 8032) on the 50th anniversary of ‘D’ day. June 6th. 1944. Adapted from an idea for a Toast to the Initiates by W. Bro. Terry Waghorn RN, late Provincial Grand Master of the Mark Degree in the Province of Cornwall who participated in that great battle."On going to school you prepare to be educated. Freemasonry at school you may well ask? The answer is an emphatic ‘Yes’. Let us commence with Geography, where you learn about countries such as Bolivia and the former Rhodesia, named after Bros. Simon Bolivar and Cecil Rhodes. In fact there are hundreds if not thousands of cities, towns, rivers and mountains etc. named after prominent Freemasons and we think immediately of Dallas, Houston, Washington, Mount McKinley, Durban, Lafayette and countless others."

THE MASONIC NEW WORLD ORDER . Watch Unto Prayer doesn't pull any punches, and many scholars and academics would consider this to be the heart of the modern conspiracy theory.

Separating the history from the theory

Anti-Masons Named forwarded from Barry Chamish on April 22, 2005.

Revising history is actually a common occurrence and has been practiced by the victor's "official historians" for thousands of years. Poems of epic proportions have been written to justify conquests and plundering. Revisions are often deemed necessary to hide embarrassing historical blunders or murder, raping and pillaging. Every nation on earth has made mistakes, some are just more honest about it than others. There has never been a "perfect" government or a "perfect" people who lived in total harmony with each other and nature. Utopia has never existed, unless you believe in Eden (which was a utopian paradise because God was the only govenor in charge). Many Americans agree our system isn't perfect, but they'll still say that we have the best form of government in the world. Most bureaucrats, and more and more younger Americans raised in modern progressive public schools, appear to be very confused about what the exact foundation for our system was based upon. Re-revisionists believe this blurring of the American national system is part of the plan for creating a global government.

The most blatant revisionists we've found have been the British, the Americans and the communists. English writers are expert revisionists and they create societies dedicated exclusively to propaganda and revising historical events. America's history is filled with half-truths, and every modern communist government has rewritten their country's official history to exclude anything that did not fit into the communist party line. Communism as a political theory silences all differing opinions. The past 100 years of communist revolutions in Russia, Europe, Asia, and Latin America have left us a with the clear promise that if they gain absolute control of the world they will murder all dissenters. This makes challenging the offical historical party line in the U.S. a very intimidating endeavor.

As Ted Flynn so eloquently explains in his introduction to Hope of the Wicked:

A war rages today for the heart, mind and soul of man. It has boiled below the surface, hidden and in stealth, for several generations. At stake is nothing less than the complete indoctrination of America and the world into an utterly alien manner of thinking and living. This book ties together various knowledge and documentation to illustrate, without the shadow of a doubt, that there has been an agenda behind the scenes to control world events, and ultimately mankind itself. It provides sure evidence that a global structure exists that few could imagine, a structure commonly called the “shadow government.”

This book is not a walk in the park on a sunny spring day. It will rattle you to the core of your existence because many of your previous beliefs will need to be rethought. It will question many areas where you thought you were intellectually and emotionally safe. It will also cause you to question the news and other information in a much more penetrating way. At first blush, it could cause you to think that the material is borne from the tree of a right wing radical, an extremist, a Constitutionalist, a member of a militia, the John Birch Society, the Christian Coalition, or other groups that would be considered right of center. However, I am none of the above, not even a member of the National Rifle Association. I am merely a scribe who has read for nearly twenty-five years on this subject, seen that clear patterns exist, and gradually patched together a quilt from disparate information. I am not alone. It is not a question of being a Democrat, Republican or member of the Reform party. It is much deeper than that because the stench is institutional and has existed for generations. People from all different political and sociological backgrounds are seeing that the material presented in this book is not as far-fetched as one would think. When you are finished, there will be absolutely no doubt that it is true. Your perception of reality will be altered. Those who will gain the most will be those who drop the baggage they carry from preconceived notions. Most of what you think about the world is really from the news you read, but most every news organization is controlled by a global elite that has been conditioning you without your even knowing it. When someone can do that, it is genius, and we are dealing with pure unadulterated genius with this group. This group has no affections or ideologies; it is solely about control.

There is a plan for a One World Order, a New World Order, a new way of thinking. It is not emerging; it is here now, and with a vengeance. A paradigm shift has occurred wherein everything that you were ever taught about government can no longer explain what is really happening behind the scenes. America’s demise is the result of an orchestrated effort designed to force us to approach the negotiating table as an equal to everyone in the world. It is an insidious plot hatched in sophisticated clubs and restaurants where the general public never pokes its eyes or ears. There is a group of global elitists who plan to rule the world on the terms that they have legislated into existence. Who are they? Where do they work? What are their professions? What is their nationality? They are an elite group of bankers, philanthropists, and senior level policy wonks who have signed on to the theory that the world needs rehabilitation because it doesn’t work the way they perceive it should work. It springs from a Hegelian doctrine that believes man is best when he serves the State. They seek to impose an impossible utopia. No sense of the Divine will be allowed, in fact it must be forcefully eradicated if a New World is to emerge, because people must have nothing independent of that world to believe in. It operates so quietly you don’t even know it exists. This secrecy and camouflage represent its closest proximity to perfection, for barely anyone knows it is there.

The One World Order and One World religion, both of the same beast, will be required thinking; conformity will be mandatory. Those considered politically incorrect will be marginalized out of the circle of influence and will lose their ability to exist in the public marketplace. Independent thought, and those who embrace it, will be cast out of accepted society. And don’t think that you will be able to sit by and watch idly as a neutral without opinion, for no fence sitting will be possible. You will be either in or out."

Rebuilding world history

The modern imperial theory of constant political conflict and violent or subversive revolution leading all nations into a world government originated sometime between the 1760's and 1848, when it was finally outright published by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels as the Communist Manifesto. America did have its own history prior to being later re-written from a dialectical materialist position, but except for the founder's writings, the majority of U.S. history was heavily influenced by the terms and world views used by the Marxists.

The following paper is a sample of the debate going on in the former colonies 225 years ago:

Anti-Federalist Paper, #84 (BRUTUS)


When a building is to be erected which is intended to stand for ages, the foundation should be firmly laid. The Constitution proposed to your acceptance is designed, not for yourselves alone, but for generations yet unborn. The principles, therefore, upon which the social compact is founded, ought to have been clearly and precisely stated, and the most express and full declaration of rights to have been made. But on this subject there is almost an entire silence.

If we may collect the sentiments of the people of America, from their own most solemn declarations, they hold this truth as self-evident, that all men are by nature free. No one man, therefore, or any class of men, have a right, by the law of nature, or of God, to assume or exercise authority over their fellows. The origin of society, then, is to be sought, not in any natural right which one man has to exercise authority over another, but in the united consent of those who associate. The mutual wants of men at first dictated the propriety of forming societies: and when they were established, protection and defense pointed out the necessity of instituting government. In a state of nature every individual pursues his own interest; in this pursuit it frequently happened, that the possessions or enjoyments of one were sacrificed to the views and designs of another; thus the weak were a prey to the strong, the simple and unwary were subject to impositions from those who were more crafty and designing. In this state of things, every individual was insecure; common interest, therefore, directed that government should be established, in which the force of the whole community should be collected, and under such directions, as to protect and defend every one who composed it. The common good, therefore, is the end of civil government, and common consent, the foundation on which it is established. To effect this end, it was necessary that a certain portion of natural liberty should be surrendered, in order that what remained should be preserved. How great a proportion of natural freedom is necessary to be yielded by individuals, when they submit to government, I shall not inquire. So much, however, must be given, as will be sufficient to enable those to whom the administration of the government is committed, to establish laws for the promoting the happiness of the community, and to carry those laws into effect. But it is not necessary, for this purpose, that individuals should relinquish all their natural rights. Some are of such a nature that they cannot be surrendered. Of this kind are the rights of conscience, the right of enjoying and defending life, etc. Others are not necessary to be resigned in order to attain the end for which government is instituted; these therefore ought not to be given up. To surrender them, would counteract the very end of government, to wit, the common good. From these observations it appears, that in forming a government on its true principles, the foundation should be laid in the manner I before stated, by expressly reserving to the people such of their essential rights as are not necessary to be parted with. The same reasons which at first induced mankind to associate and institute government, will operate to influence them to observe this precaution. If they had been disposed to conform themselves to the rule of immutable righteousness, government would not have been requisite. It was because one part exercised fraud, oppression and violence, on the other, that men came together, and agreed that certain rules should be formed to regulate the conduct of all, and the power of the whole community lodged in the hands of rulers to enforce an obedience to them. But rulers have the same propensities as other men; they are as likely to use the power with which they are vested, for private purposes, and to the injury and oppression of those over whom they are placed, as individuals in a state of nature are to injure and oppress one another. It is therefore as proper that bounds should be set to their authority, as that government should have at first been instituted to restrain private injuries.

This principle, which seems so evidently founded in the reason and nature of things, is confirmed by universal experience. Those who have governed, have been found in all ages ever active to enlarge their powers and abridge the public liberty. This has induced the people in all countries, where any sense of freedom remained, to fix barriers against the encroachments of their rulers. The country from which we have derived our origin, is an eminent example of this. Their magna charta and bill of rights have long been the boast, as well as the security of that nation. I need say no more, I presume, to an American, than that this principle is a fundamental one, in all the Constitutions of our own States; there is not one of them but what is either founded on a declaration or bill of rights, or has certain express reservation of rights interwoven in the body of them. From this it appears, that at a time when the pulse of liberty beat high, and when an appeal was made to the people to form Constitutions for the government of themselves, it was their universal sense, that such declarations should make a part of their frames of government. It is, therefore, the more astonishing, that this grand security to the rights of the people is not to be found in this Constitution.

It has been said, in answer to this objection, that such declarations of rights, however requisite they might be in the Constitutions of the States, are not necessary in the general Constitution, because, "in the former case, every thing which is not reserved is given; but in the latter, the reverse of the proposition prevails, and every thing which is not given is reserved." It requires but little attention to discover, that this mode of reasoning is rather specious than solid. The powers, rights and authority, granted to the general government by this Constitution, are as complete, with respect to every object to which they extend, as that of any State government-it reaches to every thing which concerns human happiness-life, liberty, and property are under its control. There is the same reason, therefore, that the exercise of power, in this case, should be restrained within proper limits, as in that of the State governments. To set this matter in a clear light, permit me to instance some of the articles of the bills of rights of the individual States, and apply them to the case in question.

For the security of life, in criminal prosecutions, the bills of rights of most of the States have declared, that no man shall be held to answer for a crime until he is made fully acquainted with the charge brought against him; he shall not be compelled to accuse, or furnish evidence against himself-the witnesses against him shall be brought face to face, and he shall be fully heard by himself or counsel. That it is essential to the security of life and liberty, that trial of facts be in the vicinity where they happen. Are not provisions of this kind as necessary in the general government, as in that of a particular State? The powers vested in the new Congress extend in many cases to life; they are authorized to provide for the punishment of a variety of capital crimes, and no restraint is laid upon them in its exercise, save only, that "the trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be in the State where the said crimes shall have been committed." No man is secure of a trial in the county where he is charged to have committed a crime; he may be brought from Niagara to New York, or carried from Kentucky to Richmond for trial for an offense supposed to be committed. What security is there, that a man shall be furnished with a full and plain description of the charges against him? That he shall be allowed to produce all proof he can in his favor? That he shall see the witnesses against him face to face, or that he shall be fully heard in his own defense by himself or counsel?

For the security of liberty it has been declared, "that excessive bail should not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted. That all warrants, without oath or affirmation, to search suspected places, or seize any person, his papers or property, are grievous and oppressive."

These provisions are as necessary under the general government as under that of the individual States; for the power of the former is as complete to the purpose of requiring bail, imposing fines, inflicting punishments, granting search warrants, and seizing persons, papers, or property, in certain cases, as the other.

For the purpose of securing the property of the citizens, it is declared by all the States, "that in all controversies at law, respecting property, the ancient mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the rights of the people, and ought to remain sacred and inviolable."

Does not the same necessity exist of reserving this right under their national compact, as in that of the States? Yet nothing is said respecting it. In the bills of rights of the States it is declared, that a well regulated militia is the proper and natural defense of a free government; that as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous, they are not to be kept up, and that the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and controlled by, the civil power.

The same security is as necessary in this Constitution, and much more so; for the general government will have the sole power to raise and to pay armies, and are under no control in the exercise of it; yet nothing of this is to be found in this new system.

I might proceed to instance a number of other rights, which were as necessary to be reserved, such as, that elections should be free, that the liberty of the press should be held sacred; but the instances adduced are sufficient to prove that this argument is without foundation. Besides, it is evident that the reason here assigned was not the true one, why the framers of this Constitution omitted a bill of rights; if it had been, they would not have made certain reservations, while they totally omitted others of more importance. We find they have, in the ninth section of the first article declared, that the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless in cases of rebellion,-that no bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, shall be passed,-that no title of nobility shall be granted by the United States, etc. If every thing which is not given is reserved, what propriety is there in these exceptions? Does this Constitution any where grant the power of suspending the habeas corpus, to make ex post facto laws, pass bills of attainder, or grant titles of nobility? It certainly does not in express terms. The only answer that can be given is, that these are implied in the general powers granted. With equal truth it may be said, that all the powers which the bills of rights guard against the abuse of, are contained or implied in the general ones granted by this Constitution. So far is it from being true, that a bill of rights is less necessary in the general Constitution than in those of the States, the contrary is evidently the fact. This system, if it is possible for the people of America to accede to it, will be an original compact; and being the last wilt, in the nature of things, vacate every former agreement inconsistent with it. For it being a plan of government received and ratified by the whole people, all other forms which are in existence at the time of its adoption, must yield to it. This is expressed in positive and unequivocal terms in the sixth article: "That this Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any thing in the Constitution, or laws of any State, to the contrary notwithstanding."

"The senators and representatives before-mentioned, and the members of the several State legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States, and of the several States, shall be bound, by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution."

It is therefore not only necessarily implied thereby, but positively expressed, that the different State Constitutions are repealed and entirely done away, so far as they are inconsistent with this, with the laws which shall be made in pursuance thereof, or with treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States. Of what avail will the Constitutions of the respective States be to preserve the rights of its citizens? Should they be pled, the answer would be, the Constitution of the United States, and the laws made in pursuance thereof, is the supreme law, and all legislatures and judicial officers, whether of the General or State governments, are bound by oath to support it. No privilege, reserved by the bills of rights, or secured by the State governments, can limit the power granted by this, or restrain any laws made in pursuance of it. It stands, therefore, on its own bottom, and must receive a construction by itself, without any reference to any other. And hence it was of the highest importance, that the most precise and express declarations and reservations of rights should have been made.

This will appear the more necessary, when it is considered, that not only the Constitution and laws made in pursuance thereof, but all treaties made, under the authority of the United States, are the supreme law of the land, and supersede the Constitutions of all the States. The power to make treaties, is vested in the president, by and with the advice and consent of two-thirds of the senate. I do not find any limitation or restriction to the exercise of this power. The most important article in any Constitution may therefore be repealed, even without a legislative act. Ought not a government, vested with such extensive and indefinite authority, to have been restricted by a declaration of rights? It certainly ought.

So clear a point is this, that I cannot help suspecting that persons who attempt to persuade people that such reservations were less necessary under this Constitution than under those of the States, are wilfully endeavoring to deceive, and to lead you into an absolute state of vassalage.


(Brutus quote pasted here from Liberty Post-Bush's Third Way Communitarianism is the Worst Way)

Many modern revisionists besides us are attempting to unravel the 19th century Marxist influenced revisions to U.S. history. It's extremely helpful to study the mainstream revisionist historians who began publishing in the early 20th century as revisionists. We try comparing the offical new historical perspectives of the expanding "American Empire" to the genuine 19th century non-Marxist American's history of peace and isolationist policies. Almost to the man the modern historians cannot explain when, how, and why Americans embraced their un-American Empire ideology. Some say it began with Washington, others blame it on Hamilton or Jefferson, and others lay it on the policies of Monroe or McKinley. Still later we have the camps who blame it all on Teddy Roosevelt, Wilson, FDR and Eisenhower. There are many revisionists who are convinced the U.S. Constitution was always part of the current U.N. takeover of all nations. A serious student could spin their wheels for ten lifetimes reading all the historical evidence and never get anywhere but more unsure than when they first started reading.

We think this is why so many people hate studying history. The accepted and recognised version of U.S. history just doesn't make enough sense to hold an average man's attention. Our history makes incredible leaps without any worthwhile accredited attempts to explain the reasoning behind it. Somehow America embraced every governance ideal it revolted against in 1774. Somehow several presidents were killed by unknown loners. Somehow we embraced cosmopolitan values and free trade and became just like the British Empire. We're never supposed to wonder if it happened by any other way than by pure evolutionary accident. We're told more and more often that our American society just naturally evolved into a massive socialist war/welfare for export machine. And today, for some unknown reason, most Americans seem to readily accept the "official" version of U.S. history, which is that we have become an empire for no reason at all. It just happened over time.

William Shakesphere, who created British legends and "history," was clear on one fact: "history is written by the victors." As the Utah Shakespherean Festival explains about Shakesphere writing under Queen Elizabeth: "She did not encourage historical truthfulness, but rather a patriotism, an exultant, intense conviction that England was the best of all possible countries and the home of the most favored of mortals."

History is filled with verifiable secret organizations, treasonous plots, and counter-plots to seize power, but modern Americans are taught that considering the possibility of plots makes one a conspiracy theorist. Like most people, we were initially very disturbed to find a much more plausible timeline of events as it is presented by modern American revisionist historians labeled by the mainstream as conspiracy theorists. Anyone attempting to write about American history from a pre-empire perspective is discounted as naive or uneducated. But the truth is, it's naive (and pretty stupid) to accept the official version of history when it doesn't make any sense. We may not know exactly what our true history is, but we know for sure the "official" account of current events (let alone history) is often exceptionally innaccurate.

When the government controls what the newsmedia can report (as in the Iraq war) it renders the government's information into propaganda. Freedom of the press depends on the freedom to write whatever you can document is happening. This also applies to the past. Regardless of what an official source tells us, if there are contradictory accounts of the same incident, a truly free press will present both sides. A controlled press only allows the party line to be published. Every time we come across an opinion that has been supressed in any manner, we cannot help but wonder why we as a free people have not been allowed to examine these facts for ourselves. It is beyond any doubt that the information gatekeepers have supressed several key factors which expose flaws in the official version of U.S. history.

One of the most astonishing revelations to come out during this communitarian research was the fact that British trained scholars have been rewriting American history for at least 100 years. After studying several of the recent textbooks published by the U.S. afilliated Fabian think-tank universities like Harvard, Yale, and Cambridge, etc., we realized (with complete shock!) that what is used in American classrooms to teach U.S. Political History is the history of the victors written by the defeated. Sir David Lindsay Keir, in "The Constitutional History of Modern Britain Since 1485", (1966, W.W. Norton & Co. Inc. NY , first published in 1938), explains on p v. why revisions to the book are necessary, "When, as at the moment, a tendency arises to refer to the social sciences instead of to history for the answers to the problems of government, it is worth remembering that parlimentary democracy on the lines it assumed here a hundred years ago has thus far overcome the assaults of all its enemies and still offers the supreme example of success in the 'endless adventure of governing men'." [emphasis added] What country, prior to succumbing to the assaults of its enemy over the last hundred years, offered the supreme example of men governing themselves?

Adam Weishaupt's Bavarian Illuminati Freemason plans for a global takeover are historical fact, and government records exist to prove the organization was banned by the Bavarian government in 1785. The Catholic Church also condemmed this elite freemason organization, and yet the Catholic Church is said to have created it's own secret societies as far back as the foundations for the Holy Roman Empire. A Freemason secret society played a significant role in the American Revolution, and the Jacobin influence on the French Revolution is also undisputed by accredited mainstream historians. Civil society is a Jacobin-freemason term. Many U.S. presidents have been 33rd degree masons. Federal Reserve Notes do have freemason symbols on them, as did the Pentagon-DARPA website. Bush and Kerry do both belong to Skull & Bones, a Yale secret society. It's no secret that secret societies exist, and have existed as far back as the ancient Babylonians. Why are these facts about secret societies and freemasonry part and parcel inlcuded in all the taboo topics that combine to make up the American conspiracy theory?

Mainly because of the vast supression of evidence regarding the many global secret societies, we now subscribe to the conspiratorial view of history.

Our view of American history

If you'd like to know what we think of American history, WTF is the Hegelian Dialectic? is an introduction to 19th century logic and a brief overview of the ACL hypothesis. The Historical Evolution of Communitarian Thinking is an in-depth timeline of factual, referenced historical events that changed the history of America into the History of the British-Russian-Israeli Empire.

The ACL's approach to American history is one of open curiosity and continual fascination. We started our studies in 1999 with the premise that we are a government of the people and our laws are clearly defined by 50 state constitutions and one federal constitution. Our new Seattle neighborhood plan had established a governmental right to inspect us and our homes without a legal warrant. We planned to prove to the City of Seattle that they held no legal rights to invade our homes and our privacy. We planned to use U.S. law to prove that they could not act as if they were our "Big Mother," and that their real job was to protect our homes from invasions, governmental or otherwise. We tried using American law to force them to uphold our binding legal protection from their illegal new policies.

We quickly learned the City of Seattle operates under a different system of government than the one laid out in our constitutions. The City insisted the constitution had been balanced and certain "rights" were only claimed by bad people. Our quoting 4th Amendment guarantees to lawful search and seizure requirements were met with stoney glares and open mockery. Our devoted and continued search for the truth eventually brought us nothing but disdain and contempt. We finally had to accept that the U.S. is no longer a system based in constitutional law, and we are no longer a free and independent nation of free and independent individuals.

After five years of serious study, we are still awed by our history as the first modern nation to declare all individual citizens free from imperial bondage. Even once we admitted that our individual freedom is gone, we still needed to know how we lost it, and to whom we lost it to. So we went back in time and started reading everything over again, looking for clues that would lead us to the point in time when Americans could be convinced to hand over their liberty for "security." It's been an incredible journey. Our conclusions about American's economic and individual liberty principles are continuously changing, as we can always find new evidence that totally disputes the last historian we read.

Besides the hundreds of thousands of books published by mainstream academic publishers, there is also a huge assortment of history books and magazine and newspaper articles published before 1900. Many 19th century historians tell an entirely different story than do modern textbooks used in U.S. history courses. Historical writers writing before the pervasion of Marxist thought were not all influenced by the dialectic. The American founders did not agree on any one or two sets of conflicting ideals. A study of 18th century American national debates descends quickly into a study of the ensuing hundred year globalist debate brought about by dialectical thinkers. These obscure early writings are difficult to find but well worth pursuing if the goal is to gain an objective viewpoint.

The More Lighthearted Conspiratorial history
The Misunderstood Mr. Jefferson by David N. Mayer in Liberty magazine 1997 is a good presentation explaining how history continues to be distorted.

History repeats itself; that's one of the things that's wrong with history. Clarence Darrow

ACL Hardcopy Bibliography -- These references are not available online. We checked them out of libraries, borrowed them from private collections, and found many at garage sales. There's still older books floating around out there that were published before the 20th century and these are the very best sources for pre-Marxist American history.

"America: Its History and People (In Two Parts) Part I, by Harold Underwood Faulkner and Tyler Kepner, (1934) U.S. Department of War Manual, Published for the United States Armed Forces Institute by Harper and Brothers, by order of the Secretary of War

"A History of Political Theory, Third Edition," by Georg H.Sabine (1961)"A History of the Western World," Shepard B. Clough, general editor, (1964) by D.C. Heath and Company

"American History Desk Reference, by the New York Public Library," (1997) Macmillan, N.Y.

"An Honourable Defeat; A History of German Resistance to Hitler, 1933-1945," by Anton Gill, (1994) Henry Holt and Company Inc., N.Y.

"Basic Writings of Thomas Paine; Common Sense, Rights of Man, Age of Reason," (1942) by Willey Book Co. N.Y.

"Communism; From Marx's MANIFESTO to 20th century Reality," by James D. Forman (1972) Dell Publishing Company, N.Y.

"Documents of American History, Volume I: to 1898," edited by Henry Steele Commager (1963) by Meridith Publishing Co, NY

"Documents of American History, Volume II, since 1898," edited by Henry Steele Commager (1968) by Meridth Corporation

"Hitler's Generals; Authoritative Portraits of the Men Who Waged Hitler's War," edited by Correlli Barnett (1989) Quill/William Morrow, N.Y.

"In Our Defense; The Bill of Rights in Action," by Ellen Alderman and Caroline Kennedy (1991) by William Morrow and Co., Inc. N.Y.

"How the Soviet Union Is Governed," by Jerry F. Hough and Merle Fainsod, (1953) Harvard University Press

"It Takes A Village; and Other Lessons Children Teach Us," by Hilary Rodham Clinton (1996) A Touchstone Book, Simon & Schuster, N.Y.

"Journal of the Federal Convention, kept by James Madison," (1893) by Albert Scott & Co.

"Lenin," by Leon Trotsky, authorized translation, (1962) Capricorn Books, N.Y.

"None Dare Call It Treason," by John A. Stormer (1964) by The Liberty Bell Press, MO

"Politics," by Aristotle, Translated by Benjamin Jowett, (2000) Dover Publications, Inc. N.Y.

"Politics of Change, A Brief History," by Dr. Robert Crittenden (2000) by Hargrave Pub.WA

"Psychology and Alchemy," by CG Jung, (originally published in German, 1944, 1953 translation by R.F.C. Hull), Edited by Herbert Read, Princeton University Press

"Putting People First; How We Can All Change America," by Governor Bill Clinton and Senator Al Gore (1992) Times Books, a division of Random House

"Reconstruction in Philosophy, Enlarged Edition" by John Dewey (1957) by the Beacon Press, MA

"Reflections on the Revolution in France," by Edmund Burke, Edited, with an introduction by Thomas H.D. Mahoney (original in 1790, copyright 1955) by Macmillan Publishing Co., N.Y.

"Roe v.Wade; The Untold Story of the Landmark Supreme Court Case That Made Abortion Legal," by Marian Faux (1988) New American Library, Penguin Press, N.Y.

"Roots of War; the Men and Institutions Behind U.S. Foreign Policy," by Richard J. Barnet (1973) Penguin Books Inc., USA

"Socialism; Its Theoretical Roots and Present-day Development," by James D. Forman (1972) Dell Publishing, N.Y.

"The Age of Ideology; The 19th Century Philosophers, Selected, With Introduction and Commentary," by Henry D. Aiken (1956) New American Library

"The Aquarian Conspiracy; Personal and Social Transformation in the 1980s," by Marilyn Ferguson (1980) J.P Tarcher, Inc. Los Angeles

"The Articles of Confederation; An interpretation of the social-constitutional history of the American Revolution 1774-1781," by Merrill Jensen (1940) by University of Wisconsin Press, WI

"The Constitution of the United States of America, Analysis and Interpretation, annotations of cases decided by the Supreme Court of the United States to June 1992," prepared by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress (1996) U.S. Government Printing Office, D.C.

"The Constitutional History of Modern Britain since 1485," by Sir David Lindsay Keir (1938) W.W. Norton & Co. Inc, N.Y.

"The Court and The Constitution," by Archibald Cox (1987) Houghton Mifflin Co, MA

"The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution," by Bernard Bailyn (1967) The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, MA

"The Iron Curtain Over America," by John Beaty (1951) by Wilkinson Pub. Co., Dallas, TX Beaty explains what happened to American history books under "Directive M-65 dated May 31, 1951, of the National Production Authority," on pp 97-98; on p 99 he cites Professor Harry Elmer Barnes' 1951 pamphlet titled "The Struggle Against the Historical Blackout," where Barnes "defines the historical craft's term 'revisionism' as the 'readjustment of historical facts relating to the background and the causes of the first World War' and later equates the term 'revisionism' with 'truth'."

"The Making of the Nation, 1783-1817," by Francis A. Walker, Ph.D., LL.D., President of Massachusetts Institute for Technology, (1895) by Cahrles Scribner's Sons, N.Y.

"The Origins of the American Military Coup of 2012," by Charles J. Dunlap, Jr. Parameters, U.S. Army War College Quarterly, Winter 1992-93, pp 2-20

"The Prince," by Niccolo Machevelli (1952) Reprint by New American Library of the Original Harcover Edition Published by The Oxford University Press

"The Republic of Plato," translated with introduction and notes by Francis MacDonald Cornford, Litt.D., F.B.A.(1941) Oxford University Press, London

"Treason in America: From Aaron Burr to Averell Harriman," by Anton Chaitkin (1984-85 by New Benjamin Franklin House; 1998 by Executive Intelligence Review DC)

"We, The People; The Drama of America," by Leo Hubberman (1932) by Monthly Review Press, NY

"Words That Made American History, Colonial Times to the 1870's," 3rd Edition, (1978) Little, Brown & Co., Boston, Toronto

Suggested Reading LINKS, including things we've chosen for our study list

A Footnote to the Political Theory of John Adams Vindiciae contra tyrannos by Prof. Stanley Bamberg

The Global Library for Critical Social Science

Forwarded from Peter Myer's email list:

(1) Why is not the CFR in the History Books?

Date: Sun, 20 Jul 2003 15:35:11 +1000 From: "chrispaul"

Why isn't the CFR in the History Books?

Hardly one person in 1000 ever heard of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR).

The Council on Foreign Relations was formally established in Paris in 1919 along with its British Counterpart the Royal Institute of International Affairs. The Council on Foreign Relations and Royal Institute of International Affairs can trace their roots back to a secret organization founded and funded by Cecil Rhodes, who became fabulously wealthy by exploiting the people of South Africa. Rhodes is the father of Apartheid.

The Council on Foreign Relations was founded by a group of American and British imperialists and racists intent on ruling the world. Many of the American members were American intelligence officers that belonged to the first American Intelligence Agency -- THE INQUIRY. Many of the British members were British Intelligence Agents. THE INQUIRY and its members, who included such notable Americans as Col. Edward Mandel House, Walter Lippmann, Isaiah Bowman, and James Shotwell, wrote most of Woodrow Wilson's 14 points.

The CFR/RIIA method of operation is simple -- they control public opinion. They keep the identity of their group secret. They learn the likes and dislikes of influential people. They surround and manipulate them into acting in the best interest of the CFR/RIIA.

The Council on Foreign Relations, and the Royal Institute of International Affairs are adept at using the media to create massive psycho-political operations used to manipulate public opinion. The psycho-political operations are often designed to create tensions between different groups of people. The object is to keep the world in a state of perpetual tension and warfare to maximize profits from CFR/RIIA munition, medicine, media, energy, and food businesses.

The CFR has only 3000 members yet they control over three-quarters of the nations wealth. The CFR runs the State Department and the CIA. The CFR has placed 100 CFR members in every Presidential Administration since Woodrow Wilson. They work together to misinform and disinform the President to act in the best interest of the CFR not the best interest of the American People. At least five Presidents (Eisenhower, Ford, Carter, Bush, and Clinton) have been members of the CFR. The CFR has packed every Supreme court with CFR insiders. Three CFR members (Stephen Breyer, Ruth Bader Ginsberg, and Sandra Day O'Connor) sit on the supreme court. The CFR's British Counterpart is the Royal Institute of International Affairs. The members of these groups profit by creating tension and hate. Their targets include British and American citizens.

The 100 CFR members that surround the president are "the Secret Team." The "Secret Team" help carry out psycho-political operations scripted by CFR members in the state department and the Intelligence Organizations. The psycho-political operations are coordinated by a group of Council on Foreign Relations members called the Special Group. The Special Group evolved from the Psychological Strategy Board.

President Truman issued an executive order establishing the Psychological Strategy Board. The Board was run by CFR members Gordon Gray and Henry Kissinger. The PSB has close ties to the State Department and Intelligence Organizations. The purpose of the PSB was to co-ordinate psycho-political operations. Many of those operations were focused at Americans. The people became wary of the Psychological Strategy Board. Eisenhower issued an executive order changing its name to the Operations Coordination Board. The OCB was a bigger more powerful PSB. Gray and Kissinger ran the OCB too. President Kennedy abolished the OCB. It became an ad hoc committee called the "Special Group," which exists today. The PSB/OCB/Special Group always has CFR members running and sitting on it. Since the Special Group was not formed by Executive Order it cannot be abolished.

On September 12, 1939, the Council on Foreign Relations began to take control of the Department of State. On that day Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Editor of Foreign Affairs, and Walter H. Mallory, Executive Director of the Council on Foreign Relations, paid a visit to the State Department. The Council proposed forming groups of experts to proceed with research in the general areas of Security, Armament, Economic, Political, and Territorial problems. The State Department accepted the proposal. The project (1939-1945) was called Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies. Hamilton Fish Armstrong was Executive director.

In February 1941 the CFR officially became part of the State Department. The Department of State established the Division of Special Research. It was organized just like the Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies project. It was divided into Economic, Political, Territorial, and Security Sections. The Research Secretaries serving with the Council groups were hired by the State Department to work in the new division. These men also were permitted to continue serving as Research Secretaries to their respective Council groups. Leo Pasvolsky was appointed Director of Research.

In 1942 the relationship between the Department of State and the Council on Foreign Relations strengthened again. The Department organized an Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policies. The Chairman was Secretary Cordell Hull, the vice chairman, Under Secretary Sumner Wells, Dr. Leo Pasvolsky ( director of the Division of Special Research) was appointed Executive Officer. Several experts were brought in from outside the Department. The outside experts were Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies members; Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Isaiah Bowman, Benjamin V. Cohen, Norman H. Davis, and James T. Shotwell.

In total there were 362 meetings of the War and Peace Studies groups. The meetings were held at Council on Foreign Relations headquarters -- the Harold Pratt house, Fifty-Eight East Sixty-Eighth Street, New York City. The Council's wartime work was confidential.17

In 1944 members of the Council on Foreign Relations The War and Peace Studies Political Group were invited to be active members at the Dumbarton Oaks conference on world economic arrangements. In 1945 these men and members of Britain's Royal Institute of International Affairs were active at the San Francisco conference which ensured the establishment of the United Nations.

In 1947 Council on Foreign Relations members George Kennan, Walter Lippmann, Paul Nitze, Dean Achenson, and Walter Krock took part in a psycho-political operation forcing the Marshall Plan on the American public. The PSYOP included a "anonymous" letter credited to a Mr. X, which appeared in the Council on Foreign Relations magazine FOREIGN AFFAIRS. The letter opened the door for the CFR controlled Truman administration to take a hard line against the threat of Soviet expansion. George Kennan was the author of the letter. The Marshall Plan should have been called the Council on Foreign Relations Plan. The so-called Marshall Plan and the ensuing North Atlantic Treaty Organization defined the role of the United States in world politics for the rest of the century.

In 1950 another PSYOP resulted in NSC-68, a key cold war document. The NSC (National Security Council) didn't write it -- the Department of State Policy Planning Staff did. The cast of characters included CFR members George Kennan, Paul Nitze, and Dean Achenson. NSC-68 was given to Truman on April 7, 1950. NSC-68 was a practical extension of the Truman doctrine. It had the US assume the role of world policeman and use 20 per cent of its gross national product ($50 billion in 1953) for arms. NSC-68 provided the justification -- the WORLD WIDE COMMUNIST THREAT!

NSC-68 realized a major Council on Foreign Relations aim -- building the largest military establishment in Peace Time History. Within a year of drafting NSC-68, the security-related budget leaped to $22 billion, armed forces manpower was up to a million -- CFR medicine, munition, food, and media businesses were humming again. The following year the NSC-68 budget rose to $44 billion. In fiscal 1953 it jumped to $50 billion. Today (1997) we are still running $300 billion dollar defense budgets despite Russia giving up because it went bankrupt.

America would never turn back from the road of huge military spending. Spending that included the purchase of radioactive fallout on American citizens in the 50's, and buying thermonuclear waste from the Russians as we approach the year 2000. Spending resulting in a national debt of $5.5 Trillion Dollars that continues to grow, and interest payments of over $270 billion a year. Is the Council on Foreign Relations trying to make the United States economically vulnerable to influence from outside sources? Isn't that treason?

THE INQUIRY, the PSB/OCB/Special group, the War and Peace Studies, the "X" Affair, and NSC-68 have had tremendous historical impact. Yet these events and the role played by the Council on Foreign Relations in sponsoring and carrying out the events are missing from our History books. You represent the people. Can you explain to me why the Council on Foreign Relations role in History has been left out of the History books? Why don't we learn about them in High School History courses? Why don't History majors in college learn about the Council on Foreign Relations?

If you want to learn about the CFR try the following:

TRAGEDY AND HOPE: HISTORY OF THE WORLD IN OUR TIME by Carroll Quigley. Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time. NY: MacMillan, 1966. 1348 pages.

THE ANGLO-AMERICAN ESTABLISHMENT by Carroll Quigley. NY: Books in Focus, 1981.


THE WAR AND PEACE STUDIES OF THE COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS 1939-1945, The Harold Pratt House 58th E. 68th Street, NY, 1946

THE ART AND SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS: Case Studies of Military Application Vol. 1 and 2, Pamphlet No. 725-7-2, DA Pam 525-7-2, Headquarters Dept of the Army Washington, DC, April 1976. Pollock, Daniel C Project Director & Editors De Mclaurin, Ronald, Rosenthal, Skillings(Carl F., Sarah A.)

These books are written or edited or contributed to by Council on Foreign Relations members and insiders. The Council on Foreign Relations is leaving proof so some Historian can piece together the truth sometime in the future. By the time this happens there may be no more America.

CFR member Congressman Richard Gephardt (D-MO), recently informed the TV audience America will soon have to relinquish control to a "International Regime."

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copyright © 2001-2004, Niki Raapana and Nordica Friedrich (The Anti-Communitarian League)